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Reading in Mathematics Appendix C

All professional education content courses leading to certification shall include teaching and assessment of the Wisconsin Content Standards in the content area.

In this column, list the Wisconsin Content Standards that are included in this course. The Standards for each content area are found in the Wisconsin Content Standards document. |
In this column, indicate the nature of the performance assessments used in this course to evaluate student proficiency in each standard. |
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The structures within the discipline, the historical roots and evolving nature of mathematics, and the interaction between technology and the discipline. |
Typically, students will summarize material they read and work problems related to the material read. These, depending on the topic studied, will usually assess at least one of structures, history, the evolution of mathematics or the use of technology. |

Facilitating the building of student conceptual and procedural understanding. |
The material summarized by the student and the problems they work on are selected to insure the student understands the selected topic. |

Helping all students build understanding of the discipline including: . Confidence in their abilities to utilize mathematical knowledge. . Awareness of the usefulness of mathematics. . The economic implications of fine mathematical preparation. |
Studying the selected topic on their own and working problems related to that topic measure the student's ability to study and understand mathematics on their own with general guidance from an instructor. This measures both their confidence in using mathematics independently and awareness of how useful mathematics is. |

Exploring, conjecturing, examining and testing all aspects of problem solving. |
In many cases the selected topic involves a consideration of all aspects of solving a certain type of problem. The problems the student works out and submits will measure this. |

Formulating and posing worthwhile mathematical tasks, solving problems using several strategies, evaluating results, generalizing solutions, using problem solving approaches effectively, and applying mathematical modeling to real-world situations. |
Depending on the topic selected for study, students may work problems that require alternative strategies, mathematical modeling or going from specific to general solutions. |

Making convincing mathematical arguments, framing mathematical questions and conjectures, formulating counter-examples, constructing and evaluating arguments, and using intuitive, informal exploration and formal proof. |
Often the student will need to formulate the appropriate mathematical questions as part of the work they submit, constructing either a counter-example or a proof for their conjectures. |

Expressing ideas orally, in writing, and visually-, using mathematical language, notation, and symbolism; translating mathematical ideas between and among contexts. |
Students will typically give an oral report on their progress on a regular basis to the faculty member directing their work. Worked problems will typically include mathematical notation and language. |

Connecting the concepts and procedures of mathematics, drawing connections between mathematical strands, between mathematics and other disciplines, and with daily life. |
Depending on the topic studied, problems connecting mathematical concepts, other disciplines and daily life are done. |

Selecting appropriate representations to facilitate mathematical problem solving and translating between and among representations to explicate problem-solving situations. |
For selected topics of study students may work problems that involve selecting the appropriate representation. |

Mathematical processes including: . Problem solving. . Communication. . Reasoning and formal and informal argument. . Mathematical connections. . Representations. . Technology. |
Depending on the subject selected, submitted problems can involve any one or a combination of these six mathematical processes. |

Number operations and relationships from both abstract and concrete perspectives identifying real world applications, and representing and connecting mathematical concepts and procedures including: . Number sense. . Set theory. . Number and operation. . Composition and decomposition of numbers, including place value, primes, factors, multiples, inverses, and the extension of these concepts throughout mathematics. . Number systems through the real numbers, their properties and relations. . Computational procedures. . Proportional reasoning. . Number theory. |
Depending on the subject, selected problems covering any of these topics could be done. |

Mathematical concepts and procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level number operations and relationships including: . Advanced counting procedures, including union and intersection of sets, and parenthetical operations. . Algebraic and transcendental numbers. . The complex number system, including polar coordinates. . Approximation techniques as a basis for numerical integration, fractals, and numerical-based proofs. . Situations in which numerical arguments presented in a variety of classroom and real-world situations (e.g., political, economic, scientific, social) can be created and critically evaluated. . Opportunities in which acceptable limits of error can be assessed (e.g., evaluating strategies, testing the reasonableness of results, and using technology to carry out computations). |
If the topic selected involved teaching number operations and relationships, a presentation or paper on these subject areas would be done. |

Geometry and measurement from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and mathematical concepts, procedures and connections among them including: . Formal and informal argument. . Names, properties, and relationships of two- and three-dimensional shapes. . Spatial sense. . Spatial reasoning and the use of geometric models to represent, visualize, and solve problems. . Transformations and the ways in which rotation, reflection, and translation of shapes can illustrate concepts, properties, and relationships. . Coordinate geometry systems including relations between coordinate and synthetic geometry, and generalizing geometric principles from a two-dimensional system to a three-dimensional system. . Concepts of measurement, including measurable attributes, standard and non-standard units, precision and accuracy, and use of appropriate tools. . The structure of systems of measurement, including the development and use of measurement systems and the relationships among different systems. Measurement including length, area, volume, size of angles, weight and mass, time, temperature, and money. . Measuring, estimating, and using measurement to describe and compare geometric phenomena. . Indirect measurement and its uses, including developing formulas and procedures for determining measure to solve problems. |
If a geometry topic is selected for study students would typically work problems from one or more of these areas. |

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level geometry and measurement including: . Systems of geometry, including Euclidean, non-Euclidean, coordinate, transformational, and projective geometry. . Transformations, coordinates, and vectors and their use in problem solving. Three-dimensional geometry and its generalization to other dimensions. Topology, including topological properties and transformations. . Opportunities to present convincing arguments by means of demonstration, informal proof, counter-examples, or other logical means to show the truth of statements and/or generalizations. |
If teaching geometry is selected for study students would give a presentation or a paper on work done in these areas. |

Statistics and probability from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and the mathematical concepts, procedures and the connections between them including: . Use of data to explore real-world issues. . The process of investigation including formulation of a problem, designing a data collection plan, and collecting, recording, and organizing data. . Data representation through graphs, tables, and summary statistics to describe data distributions, central tendency, and variance. . Analysis and interpretation of data. . Randomness, sampling, and inference. . Probability as a way to describe chances or risk in simple and compound events. . Outcome prediction based on experimentation or theoretical probabilities. |
Problems from one or more of these areas would be done if statistics or probability is selected as the subject studied. |

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level statistics and probability including: . Use of the random variable in the generation and interpretation of probability distributions. . Descriptive and inferential statistics, measures of disbursement, including validity and reliability, and correlation. . Probability theory and its link to inferential statistics. . Discrete and continuous probability distributions as bases for inference. . Situations in which students can analyze, evaluate, and critique the methods and conclusions of statistical experiments reported in journals, magazines, news media, advertising, etc. |
If teaching statistics or probability is the subject selected for study, a paper or a presentation on what was covered related to these area would be done. |

Functions, algebra, and basic concepts underlying calculus from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and the mathematical concepts, procedures and the connections among them including: . Patterns. . Functions as used to describe relations and to model real world situations. . Representations of situations that involve variable quantities with expressions, equations and inequalities and that include algebraic and geometric relationships. . Multiple representations of relations, the strengths and limitations of each representation, and conversion from one representation to another. . Attributes of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, algebraic, and exponential functions. . Operations on expressions and solution of equations, systems of equations and inequalities using concrete, informal, and formal methods. . Underlying concepts of calculus, including rate of change, limits, and approximations for irregular areas. |
Depending on the topic selected for study, problems from one or more of these topics may be done. |

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level functions, algebra, and concepts of calculus including: . Concepts of calculus, including limits (epsilon-delta) and tangents, derivatives, integrals, and sequences and series. . Modeling to solve problems. . Calculus techniques including finding limits, derivatives, integrals, and using special rules. . Calculus applications including modeling, optimization, velocity and acceleration, area, volume, and center of mass. . Numerical and approximation techniques including Simpson's rule, trapezoidal rule, Newton's Approximation, and linearization. . Multivariate calculus. . Differential equations. |
If teaching functions, algebra or calculus is the subject selected for study then either a paper or a presentation on the material read related to these topics will be done. |

Discrete processes from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and the mathematical concepts, procedures and the connections among them including: . Counting techniques. . Representation and analysis of discrete mathematics problems using sequences, graph theory, arrays, and networks. . Iteration and recursion. |
If the subject studied involves discrete mathematics, problems from one or more of these areas may be done. |

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level discrete mathematics including: . Topics, including symbolic logic, induction, linear programming, and finite graphs. . Matrices as a mathematical system, and matrices and matrix operations as tools for recording information and for solving problems. . Developing and analyzing algorithms. |
If the subject studied involves teaching discrete mathematics, a paper or presentation on what was covered related to these topics will be done. |